Yesterday, the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) became effective, granting eligible employees emergency paid sick leave and emergency paid family leave in response to COVID-19.  On the same day, after weeks of employers (and their attorneys) attempting to decipher the nuances of the leave requirements, the Department of Labor (DOL) issued temporary regulations, shedding light on many of the darkest and unknown corners of the law.

For example, we now know that the emergency paid sick leave (80 hours) runs simultaneously with the first ten days of emergency family leave.  We also know that the emergency paid family leave is not in addition to the twelve weeks of traditional FMLA – employees have 12 weeks total to use for traditional and/or COVID-19 qualifications, not 24.  Yet, employers are more focused on the immediate issue of determining what procedures and documentation they can require to avoid abuse and ensure that they have sufficient information to receive the tax credit.

The temporary regulations give us some answers.  First, the employer can require reasonable notice procedures and generally can require the employee to comply with its usual and customary notice and procedural requirements for requesting leave.  However, there are limitations.  Employers cannot require notice to be given in advance of the leave, it can only be required after the first workday (or part of workday) for which the employee takes the paid leave.  Thereafter, employers can require notice as soon as practicable.  An employer can require the content of the notice, which can be oral, to contain sufficient information determine that the leave is qualifying for paid sick or paid family leave.

An employer can also require supporting documentation.  Regardless of whether the employee is taking paid sick leave or paid family leave, the employee is required to provide documentation containing following: (1) his/her name; (2) dates for which leave is requested; (3) qualifying reason for leave; and (4) a statement that the employee is unable to work because of a qualified reason.  The documentation requirements do not end there.  Additional documentation is required depending upon the basis for the leave.  With respect to paid sick leave, if the employee is taking paid sick leave based on a quarantine or isolation directive (either from the government or a health care provider), he/she must provide the name of the governmental entity or the health care provider that issued the directive.  If the employee simply takes leave under traditional FMLA for their own serious health condition (or to care for the employee’s spouse, child, or parent with a serious health condition) related to COVID-19, the normal FMLA certification requirements apply.

Given that most (if not all) schools and childcare facilities are closed, the most prevalent need for paid sick and family leave will likely be related to childcare.  If the basis for paid sick and paid family leave is childcare, the employee must provide: (1) the name of the son or daughter; (2) the name of the school or place of care that has closed; (3) and a representation that no other suitable person will be caring for the son or daughter during the period of leave.  This last requirement will help avoid the situation where both parents are utilizing paid sick and paid family leave, while only one is needed to care for their children.  Finally, the regulations allow employers to request additional documentation that will be needed to support a request for tax credits for providing the leave.

Enter the IRS.  The IRS issued its own guidance related to seeking the tax credits, and if you thought that the IRS was not going to put limits on the eligibility for tax credits, you were wrong.  While the documentation requirements for the tax credit largely mirror the DOL temporary regulations, there is one large difference when it comes to paid leave for childcare purposes.  IRS requires that the documentation include the age of the child – and if the need for leave is to care for child under older than 14 during daylight hours, the documentation must include a statement that special circumstances exist requiring the employee to provide care.

So, while an employee may be eligible for leave for any child under 18, the employer will only be eligible for a tax credit if the leave is for children 14 and under (absent some exceptional circumstance).   This makes clear that employers need to be careful to gather needed documentation to capture as much tax credit as possible. Given the implications, employers should include these documentation requirements in their policies to ensure both compliance with DOL regulations and also eligibility for tax credits.  If the employee fails to provide them, after giving them notice and an opportunity to correct the failure, employers should deny the leave.

While the world was still discussing Friday’s passage of the landmark stimulus CARES Act, the Department of Labor issued additional guidance regarding the Families First Coronavirus Response Act.

Remember, the Response Act requires many employers to provide emergency paid sick leave and expanded family and medical leave for specific reasons related to COVID-19.  The April 1, 2020 effective date is looming, so if you have fewer than 500 employees, be sure to get those posters up.  Why?  Who will see your bulletin boards these days?  The DOL thought of that – if your employees are teleworking, that means you should email, direct mail, post on your Company’s intranet or put those posters up on your website.

As you may have noticed, the Response Act contained some exemptions, including one for small businesses and others designed to ensure that the employers of Health Care Workers and First Responders are not short-staffed during the pandemic, as a result of the new emergency paid leave requirements.

Small Business ExemptionAn employer with fewer than 50 employees may qualify from an exemption from providing (a) paid sick leave due to school or daycare closures for COVID-19 related reasons and (b) expanded family and medical leave due to school or daycare closures for COVID-19 related reasons, when doing so would jeopardize the viability of the small business as a going concern.

What does that mean?  An officer or director will need to gather documentation that:

  1. paying the leave would result in the expenses of the small business exceeding revenues and cause the business to cease operating at a “minimal capacity;”
  2. the absence of the employee(s) requesting paid leave would entail a substantial risk to the financial health or operational capabilities, due to their specialized skills, knowledge or responsibilities; or
  3. there are not sufficient workers able, willing and qualified to perform the services provided by the employee(s) requesting the paid leave and their services are necessary for the small business to operate at a minimal capacity.

OK, so what does that mean?  A small employer (less than 50 employees) who meets one of these criteria will not need to grant the paid leave when it is requested for reasons related to the closure of a child’s school or where the child’s care provider is unavailable due to COVID-19 related reasons. Small employers will not be exempt from the obligation to pay emergency sick leave for the other qualifying reasons, related to COVID-19, which include:

  • federal, state or local quarantine or isolation order;
  • the employee has been advised by a healthcare provider to self-quarantine;
  • the employee is experiencing symptoms and is seeking a medical diagnosis
  • the employee is caring for an individual subject to a governmental quarantine or isolation order and is seeking a diagnosis;
  • the employee is caring for an individual subject to a governmental quarantine or isolation order or in self-quarantine; or
  • the employee is experiencing “any other substantially similar condition.”

Health Care Provider Exemption.  The DOL explained that employees who may be exempted from paid sick leave or expanded family and medical leave under the Response Act include those employees of any doctor’s office, hospital, health care center, clinic, post-secondary educational institution offering health care instruction, medical school, local health department or agency, nursing facility, retirement facility, nursing home, home health care provider, any facility that performs laboratory or medical testing, pharmacy or any similar institution, employer or entity.  That exemption extends to any temporary employees, independent contractors or anyone employed by any entity that provides medical services, produces medical products or is otherwise involved in the making of COVID-19 related equipment, tests, drugs, vaccines, diagnostics or treatments.

Emergency Responder ExemptionEmployees may be excluded if they are necessary for the provision of transport, care, healthcare comfort and nutrition of COVID-19 patients, including military, national guard, law enforcement, correctional institution personnel, firefighters, EMS personnel, physicians, nurses, public health personnel, EMTs, paramedics, 911 operators, public works personnel and others with specialized skills.

The McNees Labor & Employment Practice Group is ready to help businesses with the exemption analysis as well as with the preparation of policies and forms, so that your Company is ready to comply with the Families First Coronavirus Response Act on April 1, 2020.

This post was contributed by Timothy Finnerty, Co-Chair of the McNees Corporate & Tax Group

As the coronavirus spread throughout the US and many businesses closed their doors, Congress passed the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (the “Act”). President Trump signed the Act on Wednesday, March 18. The legislation provides benefits to employees that are affected by the virus (both directly and indirectly).

Specifically, the Emergency Family and Medical Leave Expansion Act and the Emergency Paid Sick Leave Act, which are both part of the Act, provide employees of small employers (less than 500 employees) with paid leave if they are impacted by the virus. Our Labor and Employment Group has provided a detailed summary of qualifications, limitations and amounts of these benefits here.

In order to reduce the stress that payment of these benefits will cause to a small employer’s cash flow, the Act includes two tax credits, both of which are in the form of payroll tax credits. The credits are structured to fund the benefits that are required to be paid to employees under the Act for Emergency Paid Sick Leave and Paid Family Leave. However, employers will be required to make the payments to employees and then recoup such amounts through the mechanism of the two credits in the Act.  Some of the details are still being worked out as Congress works to finalize additional legislation, which could impact some of these provisions.

Tax Credit for Required Paid Sick Leave
The payroll tax credit for Required Paid Sick Leave provides employers with a tax credit against the social security tax it is required to pay to the IRS, equal to 100% of the “qualified sick leave wages” paid by the employer with respect to a calendar quarter. The amount of the qualified sick leave wages will depend upon the exact reason for the payment to the employee, but in all cases, it will not exceed $511 per day, per employee. The maximum amount of wages, therefore, would be $5,110 per employee.

The tax credit is also increased by a pro-rata portion of the employer’s qualified health plan expenses. The exact amount of this ‘portion’ is difficult to determine based on the language in the Act. However, the Act provides that further regulations will be prescribed to establish how these amounts will be determined.  Additional guidance will likely be finalized very soon.

Importantly, this credit is refundable to the employer. As such, if the amount of the tax credit exceeds the amount owed by the employer to the IRS, that amount will be treated as an overpayment and refundable to the employer. We expect that the IRS will release additional information this week on how those refunds will be processed. The normal process would be through the employer’s quarterly payroll return (Form 941), but a quicker process is likely being vetted by the IRS.

Tax Credit for Required Paid Family Leave
The other payroll tax credit tax in the Act is the Payroll Credit for Required Paid Family Leave. This tax credit also provides employers with a credit against the social security tax it is required to pay to the IRS, equal to the 100% of the “qualified family leave wages” paid by the employer to an employee.  The amount of the tax credit is capped at $200 per day and $10,000 in the aggregate, per employee, but is otherwise calculated as two-thirds of the employee’s regular pay.

Like the Tax Credit for Required Paid Sick Leave, the Tax Credit for Required Paid Family Leave is also increased by a pro-rata portion of the employer’s qualified health plan expenses. Additional guidance from the IRS is expected to provide more clarity on how that amount should be calculated.

This tax credit is likewise refundable to the employer. The details on how those refunds will work will be forthcoming. However, we are expecting that whatever the IRS puts in place will provide the employer with quick access to the much-needed cash. As Congress debates additional relief for everyone affected by the virus, we will keep you updated on issues impacting your business.


On the heels of its invitation to individuals and businesses to participate in a dialogue on the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (“Response Act”), the U.S. Department of Labor’s Wage & Hour Division issued a much needed Q&A late Tuesday afternoon.

Effective Date. The biggest question weighing on everyone’s mind has been answered.  The law passed to provide emergency paid sick leave and emergency paid family leave to employees impacted by the pandemic gripping the nation will be effective April 1, 2020 and apply to qualifying leave taken by December 31, 2020.  This means that employers cannot take credit for any paid leave extended to employees prior to April 1, 2020, even if they did so in an effort to comply with the Response Act.  To be perfectly clear, the paid sick leave and expanded family and medical leave requirements are not retroactive.

500-Employee ThresholdAnother grey area we highlighted in yesterday’s edition has been answered.  The DOL advised that in counting your U.S. “employees” you should not include independent contractors, but you should include:

  • full-time and part-time employees;
  • employees who are on leave;
  • temporary employees who are jointly employed by you and another employer (regardless of whose payroll they are on); and
  • day laborers supplied by a temp agency

This counting can get a little tricky where one corporation has an ownership interest in another corporation and (a) they are Joint Employers under the Fair Labor Standards Act or (b) they are Integrated Employers under the Family and Medical Leave Act.

  • The DOL’s Joint-Employer Fact Sheet explains the final rule on Joint Employers. According to Tuesday’s Q&A, if two entities are joint employers, all of their common employees must be counted.
  • The DOL’s Regulation on Integrated Employers is found According to Tuesday’s Q&A, if two entities are an integrated employer, then the employees of all entities making up the integrated employer will be counted.

Under either the Joint Employer or the Integrated Employer count, if the employee count is 500 or more, you are under no obligation to pay the emergency paid sick or emergency paid family and medical leave provided by the Response Act.  You also will not qualify for the tax credits, if you do extend paid leave to your employees during this pandemic.  If you have operations outside of the U.S. and its territories, you should not count them.

Eligibility for Emergency Paid Family and Medical LeaveThis grey area was cleared up as well.  Employees who need leave because they are unable to work/telework and must care for a child whose school or place of care is closed are eligible if they were employed and on the payroll for the 30 calendar days immediately prior to the day their leave would begin.  For example, if the employee requests paid leave for this singular purpose on April 1, 2020, that employee would need to have been on the payroll from March 2, 2020.  If an employee converted from temporary to regular, the time as a temporary employee counts.

We will have to wait for the actual regulations to learn more, including how to help our small business clients apply for the exemption.  Please stay tuned and subscribe to the blog for updates.  Check out McNees Law for up to the minute COVID-19 resources and do not hesitate to contact any member of the McNees Labor & Employment Law Group for assistance with implementation or policy development.

Since President Trump signed the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (“FFCRA”) on March 18th, we have been waiting for further guidance from the U.S. Department of Labor (“DOL”).  Yesterday afternoon, the DOL announced that it will be hosting a national online dialogue to allow businesses and individuals to contribute to the development of compliance assistance and related implementation of the FFCRA.

The ideas and comments that are gathered from this online dialogue will be used by the DOL to create guidance, resources, and tools that are designed to assist employers and employees in understanding their responsibilities and rights under the FFCRA.  This is a great opportunity to express any concerns and provide innovative ideas that may assist the DOL in providing meaningful guidance to employers.

For those who would like to participate in the online dialogue, use the following link from March 24 through March 29, 2020 to provide your input and ideas:  You can also join a Twitter chat hosted by @ePolicyWorks on March 25, 2020 at 2 p.m. using the hashtag #EPWChat.

As businesses scramble to develop their plan for the weeks ahead, it’s important to identify aspects of the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (“Response Act”) and related laws that are unclear at this point. Professional advisors may offer educated opinions on these questions – but, at the end of the day, we won’t know some of the answers with certainty until the U.S. Department of Labor (“DOL”) and other government authorities issue regulations or further guidance. The following is intended to assist businesses with identifying some of the gray areas in the law – and hopefully direct regulators to points where further guidance could be helpful:

Effective Date – The expanded FMLA and paid sick leave provisions of the Response Act are to take effect “not later than 15 days after the date of enactment of this Act.” The DOL is directed in the Act to issue regulations within the same time frame. Although the 15th day following enactment would be April 2, 2020 – it is possible the new requirements may take effect sooner – possibly upon issuance of DOL regulations, or shortly thereafter.

Counting Employees – The expanded FMLA and paid sick leave provisions both apply to private employers with “fewer than 500 employees.” Such statutory language always raises questions of how to count employees. May related companies be aggregated for purposes of determining the total employee head count? How closely related must the companies be to do so? Do temporary employees who have been engaged for a sustained period count? Do part-timers count – or may they count as a partial full-time equivalent? The DOL will presumably rely upon existing FMLA regulations and case law when interpreting the paid FMLA provisions in the Response Act. However, whether or not those regulations will apply to the paid sick leave provisions is unknown at this point. Hopefully, for the sanity of all employers, the same legal standards will apply to both benefits.

Eligibility – The expanded FMLA benefits apply to any employee who “has been employed for at least 30 calendar days by the employer” from whom leave is requested. Must those days be consecutive? Would an employee who was rehired yesterday be eligible based on 30 days of employment in 2017?

Unable to Work (or Telework) – The Act’s paid FMLA and sick leave benefits are available to an eligible employee who is “unable to work (or telework)” due to a need to care for a son or daughter under 18 years of age if the child’s school or child care arrangement is closed or unavailable due to a public health emergency. What if the employee has already used 11.5 weeks of FMLA week this year? What if both spouses are sent home by their respective employers due to the closure order. Spouse A has the ability to telework, but Spouse B does not. However, Spouse A claims that he/she is unable to telework because his/her 17-year old child’s school is closed. Must employers ignore the fact that the employee’s spouse is also at home – and is not teleworking? Must employers ignore the fact that most 17-year old children are capable of occupying themselves for several consecutive hours at a time? What if the child’s school building is closed, but continues to provide classes online? May employers inquire about the status of an employee’s spouse or child during the closure period?

Exempted Employees and Small Businesses – The DOL has been authorized to issue regulations exempting certain health care providers and emergency responders from the paid FMLA and sick leave requirements. Also, regulations may be forthcoming exempting small businesses with fewer than 50 employees, if the benefits would “jeopardize the viability of the business as a going concern.” The scope of these exemptions is not yet clear but hopefully will be soon.

Effect of Business Closure and Layoffs – The paid sick leave benefits are available when an employee is unable to work (or telework) for several reasons related to Covid-19.   One qualifying reason for taking paid sick leave is “the employee is subject to a Federal, State, or local quarantine or isolation order related to Covid-19.” Does Governor Wolf’s recent business closure order qualify as an isolation order? Would an employee who has been laid off due to the closure order be eligible for the expanded FMLA and paid sick leave benefits once they take effect? What if the employee was receiving statutory paid sick leave or paid FMLA at the time of the layoff – do the benefits continue? We have strong opinions on these issues, but official guidance is needed to bring certainty.

Credit for Voluntarily-Provided Paid Leave – We know that if an employer has always provided an amount of paid sick leave or PTO to employees, the existing leave will not be credited against the 80 hours of paid sick leave that will soon be available to full-time employees under the Response Act. What if an employer supplemented its regular sick leave benefits with additional “pandemic paid leave” time that was made available before the Act took effect. Would these additional benefits be credited toward the statutory sick leave requirement?  Will tax relief be available for such voluntarily-provided additional leave? (Note: Until the DOL says otherwise, cautious employers should assume the answer to these questions is no).

Notice of Rights – The DOL has been directed to promptly publish a Notice outlining employee rights under the Response Act. Employers must “keep [the Notice] posted, in conspicuous places on the premises of the employer where notices to employees are customarily posted.” What if all employees are telecommuting? Is there a duty to distribute the Notice electronically?

Use of Paid Sick Leave – The Response Act makes 80 hours of paid sick leave available to full-time employees, and a pro-rated amount available to part-timers.  Since the leave entitlement is expressed in terms of “hours”, it may presumably be taken on an intermittent hourly basis and not just full-day blocks – but official clarification on this point would be helpful.  Similarly, one of the approved reasons for taking paid sick leave under the Act is to care “for an individual” subject to a local quarantine or isolation order. Does this right extend to caring for individuals outside of the employee’s family or household? Is paid sick leave available to care for friends? Neighbors?

Definition of Full-Time – The Response Act provides 80 hours of paid sick leave to “full-time employees”, and a prorated amount for part-timers. However, the Act doesn’t define “full-time.” Does the employer’s existing employee handbook govern who is “full-time” for purposes of eligibility for paid sick leave benefits? Is 40 hours per week the definition – or are we using the 30-hour standard utilized in the Affordable Care Act?

WARN Notices – Under the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (“WARN”), employers with 100 or more employees may be required to provide 60 days’ advance notice to employees who are subject to a mass layoff that affects at least 50 employees and lasts more than six months in duration. Notices must also be given to the employees’ union and certain government authorities. Less advance notice is permitted if the layoff is due to “unforeseeable business conditions.” However, in those situations, the employer must give as much advance notice “as is practicable.” It’s unfathomable to believe that mandated closures will last anywhere near six months – however, some facilities may close permanently due to the business impact of Covid-19. How strict will WARN enforcement be in light of the fluidity of the current situation?  Relief for businesses on this issue would likely require an act of Congress and shouldn’t be assumed.

Life-Sustaining Businesses – Most Pennsylvania employers already know that Governor Wolf’s closure order for “non-life sustaining” businesses took effect at 8:00 p.m. on March 19, 2020. An announcement was made on Friday that enforcement of the closure order has been delayed until Monday, March 23, 2020 at 8 a.m. Updated Business Guidance, a Waiver Process and an email address ( for seeking clarifications are available on the Governor’s website at In addition, multiple clarifications as to which businesses are permitted to remain open have been added to the list. Here, the questions are unlimited. Perhaps the most pressing question is – “We are closed per the order, but I really need to retrieve that client file from my office – will I be fined and shackled if caught sneaking into my office under the cover of darkness on Monday night?” And, trust me, this is a purely a hypothetical question….

It’s important to “know what we don’t know” as we navigate these uncharted waters. We hope this outline of some of the gray areas in the law is helpful to you as you plan for the next few weeks. If we may assist in any way, please contact any member of our Labor and Employment Law Practice Group.

On March 19, Governor Wolf announced that non-life sustaining businesses would be required to close their physical locations in Pennsylvania by 8:00 p.m. that evening.  As part of the order, the Administration published a list of life sustaining and non-life sustaining businesses.  The measure was implemented to inhibit the spread of COVID-19 and enforcement was slated to begin at midnight on March 21.  Governor Wolf’s order also included a mechanism whereby businesses could seek an exemption from the shutdown.

Since Thursday, the Governor’s Office has been flooded with exemption requests from Pennsylvania businesses seeking to keep their physical locations open during the shutdown.  As a result, Governor Wolf announced that enforcement of the shutdown order would be delayed until 8:00 a.m. on March 23.  The Administration also updated its list of life sustaining and non-life sustaining businesses.

Businesses that are classified as non-life sustaining may still seek exemption from the shutdown order.  Those who choose to apply for exemption may do so online.

If you have questions about how the shutdown order affects your business, or if you need assistance seeking an exemption from the order, contact any member of our Labor and Employment Group.

COVID-19’s impact on workplace matters continues to broaden.  The National Labor Relations Board, which has jurisdiction over most private sector employers, announced on Thursday that all union elections within its purview are suspended for two weeks.  Importantly, the suspension applies to both in-person and mail-in voting.

The Board implemented the freeze due to concerns over its ability to conduct elections safely and effectively amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.  The NLRB recently closed five regional offices to date (Cleveland, New Orleans, Manhattan, Detroit, and Chicago) after workers at those branches may have been exposed to coronavirus.  The Board also closed its headquarters in Washington, D.C. after an employee there had contact with someone who has tested positive for COVID-19.

The Board has indicated that its freeze on elections may be extended, depending on how the COVID-19 situation develops over the next two weeks.  For now, any union elections under the NLRB’s jurisdiction that were set to take place between March 19 and April 2, 2020, will be postponed and no elections will be scheduled during that time frame.

If you have any questions about the effects of the NLRB’s temporary suspension of elections, contact any member of our Labor & Employment Group.

It has been a dizzying few weeks for anyone trying to keep up with the steady stream of government directives and related information involving COVID-19. The Families First Coronavirus Response Act (“Response Act”), Governor Wolf’s Orders and guidance from the CDC, OSHA and the EEOC have pushed employers and their counsel into overdrive. Many of us have no problem remembering the basic content of these directives, but may have trouble retaining dates and numerical aspects of specific requirements. It is for those “numerically challenged” readers that this cheat sheet has been prepared. We hope you find it helpful.

1 = Number of full business days that “non-life sustaining” businesses have to comply with the Governor’s Order to close shop. The Order was issued on March 19 and will take effect at 12:01 am on Saturday, March 21, 2020.  Today is the day that many Pennsylvania businesses are wrapping things up.

2 = When calculating the number of paid sick hours that a covered employer must provide to part-time employees, the employer must use the average number of hours worked by the employee over a two-week period. The Secretary of Labor has been directed to provide further guidance on this calculation (e.g. where scheduled hours fluctuate) within 15 days – by April 2, 2020.

6 = The CDC’s recommended distance (in feet) that employees should keep between each other, while also avoiding large gatherings and congregation settings (if the business is permitted to continue operations).

7 = Number of days following passage of the Response Act that the Secretary of Labor is to publish a Notice for employers to use that advises employees of their rights under the Act. The poster should be available online at no later than March 25, 2020.

12 = Numbers of weeks of leave available to eligible employees under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) – each of which may now be taken on a paid basis for child care emergency issues if certain conditions are met (see “200″ below).

14 = Number of days of quarantine recommend by CDC for any household where one member is infected with Covid-19.

15 = Number of days after enactment that the Response Act takes effect. The Act was passed on March 18, 2020 was originally expected to take effect on April 2, 2020 – however, recent information suggests that the Act may now take effect sooner.

18 = Number of months that COBRA continuation health coverage is available to qualifying beneficiaries who lose coverage due to termination of employment or reduction of hours. The Pennsylvania “Mini-COBRA” law applies to smaller employers with 2-19 employees and provides coverage for up to 9 months.

20 = Number of seconds that CDC recommends that employees take to wash their hands with soap – or with use of a hand sanitizer containing at least 60%-95% alcohol.

26 = Number of weeks of unemployment compensation benefits typically available for employees who have been laid off.

30 = Number of days that an employee must have been employed by an employer to qualify for the new paid FMLA leave benefit for child care emergencies under the Response Act.

50 = Minimum number of employees that must be laid off in order to trigger the 60-day advance notice requirement under the federal Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act. However, the notice may be delayed due to “unforeseeable business conditions” – and no notice is required for layoffs lasting less than six months in duration. Several states have enacted “Mini-WARN” laws with more stringent requirements – but Pennsylvania has not.

80 = Number of hours of paid sick leave that are available under the Response Act to full-time employees of covered employers for qualifying reasons relating to COVID-19, quarantines, care for individuals subject to quarantine and child care emergencies. This is in addition to the 12 weeks of paid FMLA leave available for child care emergencies discussed above.

100.4 = Threshold body temperature at which the CDC recommends that employees stay home from work (if the employer is open for business) until they are free of fever, signs of fever and any other symptoms (e.g. cough, shortness of breath) for at least 24 hours without use of fever reducing or other symptom-altering medications (e.g. cough suppressants).

153 – Number of “industry groups” that are deemed “life-sustaining” and are permitted to continue operating under Governor Wolf’s March 19, 2020 Order.

200 ($) = Maximum daily pay for employees eligible for paid FMLA leave to care for a child (under 18) whose school or child care arrangement has been closed due to a public health emergency. The daily pay is to be 2/3 of the employee’s wages (maximum of $200/day) and a total maximum benefit of $10,000. The same $200 daily maximum applies to paid sick days taken to care for “an individual” subject to quarantine or a child whose school has closed or whose child care arrangement is unavailable due to a public health emergency. A $511/day maximum applies to sick days taken due to an employee’s quarantine or isolation as directed by a government entity or a health care provider – or due to seeking a medical diagnosis for symptoms of COVID-19.

500 = Private employers having fewer than 500 employees are subject to the Response Act’s paid sick leave and paid FMLA requirements. Note that related companies with common management and ownership, centralized control of employee relations and interrelated operations will likely be aggregated for purposes of coverage under the expanded FMLA benefit requirement. Whether aggregation of such entities applies for purposes of coverage under the paid sick leave portion of the Response Act is not yet entirely clear.

This is not the first time that a deadly pandemic has hit the U.S. – but it is the first time employers have had to balance so many regulatory requirements during such a difficult time. We hope this quick overview of some of the numbers involved helps you keep the multitude of directives straight. If you have any questions regarding any of the items above or your strategy for navigating this challenging time, please contact any member of our Labor and Employment Law Practice Group.

As of 8:00 p.m. Thursday evening, March 19, 2020, all “non-life-sustaining” businesses throughout Pennsylvania must close its physical locations in response to the COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak, according to a new order issued by Gov. Tom Wolf.

The new mandate, which is a follow-up to the administration’s recommendation that all non-essential businesses suspend operations to help curb the spread of COVID-19 coronavirus last week, will include enforcement actions against businesses that do not comply with the order. Businesses that do not close physical locations by 12:01 a.m. on Saturday, March 21, 2020, could face citations, fines and license suspensions, as well as jeopardize forfeiture of current or future state grant or disaster relief funding.

The administration provided a list of businesses that may remain open and those that must close, which can be found here.

Under the new order, food establishments can continue to offer carry-out, delivery, and drive-through food and beverage service, including alcohol. In addition, the prohibition does not apply to “work from home” options, as long employees practice social distancing and other mitigation measures.

Earlier today, the governor announced the state would make available low-interest loans for small businesses and eligible nonprofits across the Commonwealth through the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). But the latest order to force the shutdown of physical locations of “non-life-sustaining” business is sure to have a significant impact on an already concerned business community.

For those businesses seeking guidance, please contact the McNees Labor and Employment Practice Group.

More information on what you can do to protect yourself and others can be found at or check out the CDC’s coronavirus information page.

Special thanks to the McNees Strategic Solutions Group for contributing this post.